Present perfect


to have + past participle


I have                      lost

We have                         driven

You have                finished

You have                        made

She has                  seen

They have                      done

He has                   eaten


It has                     stopped



regular verbs

irregular verbs

- finished

 - spoken

- decided

 - been










I have not           I haven’t          

She has not         She hasn’t




have I                     lost

have we                         driven

have you                finished

have you                       made

has she                  seen

have they                      done

has he                    eaten


has it                    stopped




  1. new information

Oh! I’ve cut my finger!

The road is closed. There has been an accident.


-         connection with the past -  has a result now

Where is your key? I don’t know. I’ve lost it. (I don’t have them now)

He told me his name but I’ve forgotten it. (I can’t remember it now).

I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? (Do you know where it is now?)


  1. use it with just, already, yet.

 just – a short time ago

 - Are you hungry? No, I’ve just had lunch.


alreadysomething happened sooner than expected

- Don’t forget to send the letter. I’ve already sent it.


yet – until now        Use only in questions and negative sentences.

-         I’ve written a letter but I haven’t sent it yet.



Difference between gone to and been to


Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (He is there now or on his way)